The austere character of the almost fortresslike walls of the exterior is reinforced by symmetrical bell towers on the corners and an elaborately articulated entrance portal. Latin American Art and Architecture Research Guide. The Spanish and Portuguese began to occupy parts of the Americas at the end of the 1400's. Historical circumstances will be taken into account so that the student is able to understand what both art and architecture reveal about Latin American thought and culture. Visual, spatial, and material practices (painting, sculpture, urban form, cartography, and film, among others) from North and South America. For Cuzco, with regard to the Inca Empire, was another Rome and the one city may be well compared to the other.” The cathedral of Cuzco (mid-16th to mid-17th century), by Francisco Becerra, is one of the few buildings that survived the strong earthquake of 1650. Several churches were built in Ouro Prêto, a city in the region. Cuzco’s urban structure featured streets, doors, and walls that utilized existing Inca masonry techniques; the new structures adapted and reused existing earthquake-resistant stone foundations. Another surrealist was Wilfredo Lam. But interiors, such as that of Bahia's cathedral, exploded in dazzling displays of gold decoration. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Study 126 Latin American Art and Architecture flashcards from Evan C. on StudyBlue. Latin American art is the combined artistic expression of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, as well as Latin Americans living in other regions. Until England’s conquest of Barbados in 1625, Spain, together with Portugal in the south, controlled all of the New World. The plan usually included a single nave church, a convent around a patio, a large walled atrium or churchyard with an open-air chapel for outdoor masses, and small corner chapels called posas. Latin American architecture, history of architecture in Mesoamerica, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean beginning after contact with the Spanish and Portuguese in 1492 and 1500, respectively, and continuing to the present. A solution was found in a Latin American version of the Spanish Renaissance style called plateresque. Nevertheless, they have continuously made significant contributions to world art. The University of Mexico was designed in 1950-53 by a group of more than 150 architects, including Juan O'Gorman and Félix Candela. Omissions? It is the presence of three distinct cultural heritages: Indian, European, and African. Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1822. Before colonization, Mexico, Central America, and the Andean region of South America were home to many native Indian peoples. The art of Latin America is remarkably varied. His paintings and sculptures were not completely abstract. This blending of cultures is an important characteristic of Latin American art. By the turn of the century, Latin America had a wealthy cultural elite. The Mexican muralists painted large-scale frescoes that commented on contemporary events. One, the church of Nossa Senhora do Rosário (1785), shows the typical tendency of that region toward curving forms. Soon, local artists began to travel to European cities for training. During the 1930's, it inspired the work of socially active artists such as Candido Portinari in Brazil and Antonio Berni in Argentina. For the artistic achievements of the Aztec, the Maya, and other native cultures, see pre-Columbian art and architecture. . In addition to discovering the cultural and historical background in relation to artistic constructions, students will design a unit lesson plan that appropriately incorporates course material into the L2 Spanish classroom. For example, the ancient city of Cholula is a pre-Columbian grid city that Cortés called “the most beautiful city of all I have seen outside of Spain.” (It remains, along with Cuzco, the oldest city of the Western Hemisphere to be continuously inhabited—perhaps for as long as 8,000 years.). In New Spain the ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlán was systematically rebuilt as Mexico City and designated the capital of the viceroyalty. Read preview. Latin American Art and Architecture - Art And Art History 1412 with O at Trinity University - StudyBlue Flashcards In Brazil, the Neo-Concrete artists of São Paulo included Helio Oiticica and Lygia Clark. They were transformed at the local level into something new and original. That is because its main regions—Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean, and South America—have many different kinds of populations and traditions. Spanish and Latin American studies (Honours) Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Advanced Studies (Languages) Diploma of Language Studies *Available as a major and minor within the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Economics and Bachelor of Visual Arts, as well as all combined Bachelor of Advanced Studies degrees. You are being redirecting to Scholastic's authentication page... For more support materials, visit our Help Center. This style originated in France. These included cane-and-wood roofing known as quincha and the use of thick old Inca walls for the foundations of buildings. The martinfierrists were based in Argentina. Churches were often decorated with figures that combine pagan and Christian characteristics. They formed into separate republics. The city's spacious layout and graceful buildings were designed to bring the life of Brazil inland from the old coastal cities. This diversity makes Latin American art difficult to define. It used columned facades and other forms inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. Before returning, Columbus ordered his men to build a fort—the first European building constructed in the Americas. Seeking to symbolize postwar efficiency and organization, Latin American cities embrace the North American "architecture of bureaucracy."1947-A. In these places, more expressive styles took hold. In the Church of the Jesuits in Cuzco, two flanking bell towers protect the facade from tremors. Documents of 20th Century Latin American and Latino Art from the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Oscar Niemeyer designed most of its buildings after 1960. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Their realistic style was well suited to their purpose of conveying the ideals of the Mexican Revolution. Research. In the United States, the Unlike Peru, Brazil is not threatened by earthquakes. Iria Candela and Paola Santoscoy. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The conquest of Amerindian cities and the first American building, The first Spanish viceroyalties and their capitals, The new urban strategy: Checkerboard plans and the Laws of the Indies, Renaissance and Mannerist architecture in the New World, Seventeenth- and 18th-century architecture in Ecuador, Colombia, and Cuba, Eighteenth-century architecture in Mexico, Ouro Prêto: Brazilian Baroque architecture in the 18th century. Photo: Fernando Diniz Moreira. For a thorough treatment of the often-related visual art traditions of Latin America after about 1500, see Latin American art. Baroque architecture of the viceroyalty of Peru had special modifications designed to withstand earthquakes. A section of the remains of the monumental Inca fortress of Sacsayhuamán, near Cuzco, Peru. His art and teachings were highly influential throughout Latin America, particularly in Uruguay and Argentina. In Bahia, the capital of the viceroyalty of Brazil, facades were patterned after Portuguese models. Cuzco, the ancient capital of the Inca empire, and Lima, a new city founded by the Spanish in 1535, functioned as the two great cities of colonial Peru, and governance shifted between them. Modern architecture occupies a prominent place in Brazil’s cultural heritage. An outstanding colonial sculptor was Brazil's Antonio Francisco Lisboa, known as O Aleijadinho ("The Little Cripple"). Several large building projects were undertaken in different parts of Latin America during the 1900's. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. In New Spain, the somber European style of the Cathedral of Mexico City was abandoned in smaller urban centers. Africans, brought there as slaves by the Europeans, also greatly affected the culture. View Details. These people live almost like those in Spain and in as much harmony and order as there, and considering that they are barbarous and so far from the knowledge of God and cut off from all civilized nations, it is truly remarkable to see what they have achieved in all things. Latin American builders modified the baroque style to suit the environment of the New World. They transformed simple geometric shapes and color planes into playful sculptures and intensely colored installations. In Argentina in the 1940's, artists such as Tomas Maldonado and Gyula Kosice formed the Concrete Invention and Madi groups. Lucio Costa planned the new capital of Brazil in 1957. This strategy was reinforced by the architecture of cathedrals that adapted prevailing innovations by European Renaissance and Mannerist architects (see below) to the vernacular and local conditions found in the New World. The Church of the Jesuits in Quito, Ecuador, was built following Italian models for the plan and facade. It inspired new ways of expressing the blend of the native and European heritages. By contrast, architects and planners in European cities were often limited by the existing medieval urban fabric in the application of this model. These artists took their name from the famous Argentine epic poem Martín Fierro. Similarly, cathedrals and parish churches tended to be plain. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. After about 1500, these traditions often became intertwined with those of Europe and North America; for these European and North American histories, see Western architecture. The themes and styles of the frescoes followed European models. The technical and theoretical aspects of architecture are treated elsewhere; see architecture. ( fronts ) and interiors Church of Nossa Senhora do Rosário ( )! 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