Hanging, firing squad. 5 (14%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war). Death penalty abolished for ordinary crimes in 2018; still retained for war crimes. Officially, only 16 countries (including Egypt, Nigeria, Somalia, Libya and Sudan) have and maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. According to Amnesty International, as of July 2015, 101 countries have abolished the death penalty for all crimes in law, while 140 countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. Death penalty allowed for aggravated murder; castration resulting in death; kidnapping a minor resulting in death; terrorism; robbery; treason; espionage; genocide; crimes against humanity; attempt or conspiracy to commit genocide, crimes against humanity and certain war crimes; torture; human trafficking; poisoning; harboring criminals; perjury leading to a person being sentenced to death; attempting to commit a death-eligible offense and redicivism in case of most serious offenses. According to deathpenaltyinfo.org 28 states out of 50 have the death penalty in the United States. Countries categorized as 'very high' on Human Development Index, Alexandre Juster, L'histoire de la Polynésie française en 101 dates : 101 événements marquants qui ont fait l'histoire de Tahiti et ses îles, Les éditions de Moana, 2016 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Capital punishment in Saint Kitts and Nevis, Capital punishment in the United Arab Emirates, Capital punishment in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Capital punishment in the British Indian Ocean Territory, List of most recent executions by jurisdiction, "ABOLITIONIST AND RETENTIONIST COUNTRIES AS OF JULY 2018", "Abolitionist and Retentionist countries as of July 2018", "DEATH SENTENCES AND EXECUTIONS REPORT 2015", "Iran hangs Ali Reza Tajiki, who was arrested for murder at age 15", "South Sudan steps up executions, children not spared", http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020.pdf, "Gambia suspends death penalty en route to abolition", "Canadian's death sentence in China 'horrific', family says", https://www.worldcoalition.org/ADPAN-welcomes-Mongolia-decision-abolish-death-penalty-in-law.html, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-51969961, https://www.mmtimes.com/news/government-hasnt-relaxed-death-penalty.html#:~:text=Although%20death%20penalties%20are%20still,have%20been%20executed%20since%201988.&text=According%20to%20a%202017%20report,sentences%20commuted%20to%20life%20imprisonment, "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) | EU Policy on Death Penalty", "Belarus and Ukrainan rebels keep death penalty alive in Europe", "UN Says Fighting Fuels 'Dire' Situation In Eastern Ukraine As Winter Sets In", "International law: abolition protocols ratified last month", "Overview of the death penalty worldwide in 2016", https://www.amnestyusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Amnesty-Death-Sentences-and-Executions-2019.pdf, "Gambia suspends death penalty in step towards abolition", "HANDS OFF CAIN against death penalty in the world", https://web.archive.org/web/20141210142122/http://www.27maio.com/nito-alves-1945-1977/, "Benin: Accession to the Second Optional Protocol Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty", https://www.zimeye.net/2020/02/22/29yr-old-man-executed-for-employers-murder/, "Burkina Faso abolishes death penalty in new penal code", "Burundi: Imminent resumption of executions or summary trials and executions", "Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality", "At Least 47 Surrendered Rebels 'Executed' as Burundi Makes a Bloody Start to 2015 - VICE News", "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Cameroon, U.N. Doc. The death penalty is legal in Belize and Guyana. In Central and South America, the death penalty exists in Belize and Guyana, though it has not been used in years. Death penalty for aggravated murder, armed robbery, terrorism, "mercenarism" resulting in death, Firing squad, shooting. 1998 (for all crimes in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and for all ordinary crime in Republika Srpska) 2019 (for all crimes in Republika Srpska), Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. In the hundred years following the abolition of capital punishment by Venezuela in 1863 only 11 more countries followed, not counting temporary abolitions which were later reversed. 4) Does any European country have the death penalty? Its existence can be traced to the beginning of the American colonies. Hanging. After 1876, Emperor Pedro II adopted in practice an abolitionist policy through his prerrogative of Mercy as Head of State, by directing that all death sentences be submitted by the Courts to the Imperial Government for examination regarding commutation (even without a request for pardon or commutation from the person condemned), and by granting commutations for all death sentences that were passed. [17] In Iran and Saudi Arabia, the numbers of executions are also very high. For 40 years, we have been working to end executions. All other countries in this category have abolished capital punishment. Executions by firing squad. In 2001 Bosnia-Herzegovina ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty for all crimes.8. To wit, death sentences are handed down and carried out regularly, most recently in 2020. The tendency to execute criminals is decreasing. Philippines, Switzerland, Portugal, Italy) only the later abolition date is included. Death penalty for murder; treason, Abolished by the "Law No. [18] India executes criminals only in extreme cases. Death penalty for murder; rape; violent robbery; burglary; treason; housebreaking and military offenses. Death penalty for murder, treason, terrorism, armed robbery, espionage, piracy, war crimes, some military offences and crimes against humanity. It shows that in the past decade, an average of over three countries a year have abolished the death penalty in law or, having done so for ordinary offences, have gone on to abolish it … Of the 43 independent countries in Asia that are UN member or observer states: The information above is accurate as of 2021[update], when Kazakhstan abolished the death penalty, and does not include Taiwan, which is not currently a UN member; Taiwan practises the death penalty by shooting, and conducted one execution in 2016 and one in 2018. Abolished March 1990 by Constitution. In addition, about 50 other countries are abolitionist in practice. Firing squad. Death penalty for aggravated murder; terrorism; violent robbery, armed robbery or gang-robbery; arson; kidnapping; treason; espionage; certain military offenses; crimes against humanity; genocide; assaulting on-duty state employees with the intention of causing death; poisoning or mass poisoning of water supplies; committing torture or barbarous acts in the course of a serious offense and attempting a death-eligible crime. An other de facto autonomous region, Mong La (officially: Shan State Special region 4) on the Myanmar-Chinese border under the control of the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) is also reputed to carry out executions much like Wa State,[251] however information is less reliable as executions are not officially announced. 7 (13%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice. The June 29, 1972 Furman v. Georgia Supreme Court ruling placed a de facto moratorium on the death penalty in the United States. 6 to the European Convention on Human Rights, abolishing the death penalty for peacetime offences.7. 2009 and 2015 were the first two years in recorded history when Europe was completely free of executions. The table below presents the countries that have abolished the death penalty, in order of the year in which it was abolished. Since 1976, more than 75 nations have abolished the death penalty for all crimes, while others have abolished it for ordinary crimes. Most executions worldwide take place in Asia. Its ratification of Protocol No. The last execution in the Caribbean, and the last in the Americas outside the United States, was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008. In the Caribbean countries, the death penalty exists at least de jure, except in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which abolished it in 1969 and 1987, respectively. This is a increase from 16 in 1977. Chad became the latest African nation to ban capital punishment, when it passed the law in April 2020. Death penalty for murder, treason, rape, and military offenses such as mutiny. Death Penalty Information Center | 1701 K Street NW Suite 205 Washington, DC 20006, Phone: 202-289-2275 | Email: [email protected], Privacy Policy | ©2021 Death Penalty Information Center, Countries That Have Abolished the Death Penalty Since 1976. Hanging. [21][22][23], Capital punishment has been completely abolished in all European countries except for Belarus and Russia, the latter of which has a moratorium and has not conducted an execution since 1999. Of the 12 countries with a "very high" Human Development Index which practice executions, 10 are in Asia: Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Death penalty for murder; treason; military offenses; mutiny by prison officers; and abortion (in Zanzibar semi-autonomous region). This is a significant decrease from 20 years ago in 1995, when there were executions in 42 countries, highlighting the clear global trend of states moving away from the death penalty. 30 executions have taken place in India since 1991. Death penalty for. [246] Nevertheless, Myanmar is regarded as “abolitionist in practice” by both Amnesty International[247] and Death Penalty Watch.[248]. Liberia) are not included. Only one civilian was sentenced to death in the republican period, in 1969, but the sentence was commuted and was not carried out. Currently, the large majority of countries have either abolished or discontinued the practice. Hanging, shooting. Which countries have abolished the death penalty? The first state to do this was Wisconsin, which made the punishment illegal in the year 1853. Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 28 states, American Samoa, the federal government, and the military. Belarus is the only European country not to have abolished the death penalty. Death penalty for. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is only partly recognised, and claimed in whole by. Of the 49 independent states in Europe that are UN members or have UN Observer status: Abolition of death penalty is a pre-condition for entry into the European Union, which considers capital punishment a "cruel and inhuman" practice and "not been shown in any way to act as a deterrent to crime".[300]. It was in the Kingdom of Tahiti (when the island was independent), in 1824, that for the first time in the world a legislative assembly abolished the death penalty, commuted into banishment. NUR-SULTAN – The government of Kazakhstan has abolished the capital punishment, after a nearly 20-year freeze on death penalty in the Central Asian country, a … Today, that number has risen to 106 - more than half the world's countries. The last known executions in this region took place in Tonga in 1982. It became an independent member state of the United Nations on 28 June 2006. In 1993 the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic divided into two states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.4. Countries that have recently abolished the death penalty: As of the end of 2006, 86 countries no longer have the death penalty. When Amnesty started its work in 1977, only 16 countries had totally abolished the death penalty. Globally, of the 193 United Nations states, 54 countries retain capital punishment, 108 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, 7 have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes) and 27 are abolitionist in practice. At the end is a list of countries which have abolished the death penalty since 1976. Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. Between 6 September 1930 by martial law until 20 February 1932. Amnesty opposes the death penalty at all times – regardless of who is accused, the crime, guilt or innocence or method of execution. Defunct countries such as the GDR (East Germany), which abolished capital punishment in 1987 but was dissolved in 1990, are also not included. Over the past decade, several U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the death penalty’s application in the states. Death penalty for murder; treason; armed robbery. [25] Nearly all countries in this region have abolished the death penalty as a form of punishment, and the two countries that still have it in law (Papua New Guinea and Tonga) have not used it in many decades. Of all modern European countries, San Marino, Portugal and the Netherlands were the first to abolish capital punishment, whereas only Belarus still practices capital punishment in some form or another. A total of 20 states – plus Washington D.C. – have abolished the death penalty. Most recently, Washington, Delaware, Maryland, Connecticut, and Illinois have all abolished capital punishment. Amnesty International reports that as of the end of 2013, more than two-thirds of all countries have abolished death penalty in law or in practice. "Almost 80% of African countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. 8 (18%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years. Death penalty for aggravated murder, murder, public comments, rape (if it results in the death of the victim), barbaric actions including torture, and aggravated rape. Other countries like Libya have conducted extrajudicial executions. Botswana, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Nigeria are examples of countries that execute people. As per current data, there are 58 … They were the first U.S. state to do so in 40 years. Japan has the highest inequality-adjusted HDI (Human Development Index, of the United Nations Development Programme) of any country to use the death penalty; Singapore has the highest unadjusted HDI. Death penalty for treason, murder and terrorism. Countries which have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. The countries in the Americas that most recently abolished the death penalty are Suriname (2015), Argentina (2009), and Bolivia (2009). In 2018, Burkina Faso repealed the death penalty for ordinary crimes, and The Gambia announced a moratorium as a first step toward abolition. In 2000 it had ratified Protocol No. Along with Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore, the United States is one of four advanced democracies and the only developed Western nation that applies the death penalty regularly. Number of African countries abolished death penalty in past decade. Many states amended their laws to comply with the mandates of the Furman decision and reinstate capital punishment after the 1972 ruling. Hanging, firing squad, shooting. Three countries have signed treaties to abolish the death penalty, but not have not yet ratified them: Angola, Madagascar, Sao Tome and … Brazil has always maintained the death penalty in wartime as part of its Military Code but, after Brazil became a Republic in 1889, capital punishment for civil offenses or for military offences committed in peacetime was abolished by the first republican Constitution, adopted in 1891. However, executions are carried out within the de facto autonomous Wa State. While in recent years the UWSA has reached a détente with the Myanmar central authority, the Myanmar legal system does not apply in practice within Wa State. Wa state (officially the Wa Self-Administered Division) is nominally a semi-autonomous division located in two disconnected regions within Shan State. Despite this it was reinstated on several occasions: On 26 August 2008, a new Code of Military Justice was promulgated that abolished death penalty. In South Korea, Russia, the Bahamas, Barbados, and Brunei, a moratorium is in practice. In these countries, death penalty can only be given for exceptional crimes such as crime committed under military law or … The self-proclaimed state of Transnistria, which is claimed by Moldova, still retains the death penalty but has observed a moratorium on executions since 1999. Since 1999, Belarus has been the only recognized country in Europe to carry out executions. No additional countries banned the death penalty in 2019 for the second year in a row, but Amnesty says that 142 countries have either abolished the death penalty in law or in practice. "Portuguese Constitution of 1933 - Part I, Title II, Article 8º, Nº11: [Translation]: "Article 3 of Law 635 - Amendment to the Portuguese Constitution of 1911 - The exception on the article of the death penalty: [Translation], "Ley Orgánica 11/1995, de 27 de noviembre, de abolición de la pena de muerte en tiempo de guerra", "Turkey's parliament 'to consider reintroducing death penalty. It is believed Britain influenced America's use of the death penalty more than any other country, with the first recorded execution of Captain George Kendall in the Jamestown colony of Virginia in 1608. Seven countries, including Brazil, Chile and Kazakhstan have abolished it for ordinary crimes. The U.S., supported by Syria, Iran, China and other dictatorships, opposed the resolution. Nismo imali izbora, morali smo ga osuditi na strijeljanje", "The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia", http://expresso.sapo.pt/sociedade/2017-06-30-Ha-100-anos-a-espera-de-um-perdao-do-Estado-portugues#gs._cRmMTE. Some Southern states of Nigeria have imposed a moratorium on the death penalty since 2004,[105] while others continue to carry out executions. Belarus is the only European country not to have abolished the death penalty. More than two thirds of countries have struck capital punishment from their statutes, or at least for all practical purposes. Firing squad, hanging. This trend away from capital punishment can be seen in the United States as well. The court has abolished the death penalty for mentally disabled offenders (Atkins v.Virginia, 2002), juvenile offenders (Roper v.Simmons, 2005), and for those convicted of raping a child where death was not the intended or actual result (Kennedy v. In Africa, there are several countries that use the death penalty. There are 98 countries which have abolished … Currently (2020), the United States is the only country in the Americas to conduct executions for civil purposes. Death penalty enforcement. Executions by firing squad. International Actors, Democratization and the Rule of Law: Anchoring Democracy? Whether or not you agree with the death penalty as a consequence of serious criminal activity, capital punishment remains legal in fourteen countries worldwide. Hong Kong and Macau are also listed below (they have abolished the death penalty), but they are not included in the figures above as they do not have UN membership separate from China. The last execution elsewhere in the region was in Saint Kitts and Nevis in 2008. The two republics became independent in 1991.3. Death penalty for murder; terrorism; participating in a mutiny; treason and espionage. Of the 66 sovereign states categorized as 'very high' on the 2020 issue of the Human Development Index (referring to 2019),[15] 12 perform capital punishment: Singapore, the United States, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, Belarus, Kuwait, Qatar, Malaysia, and Taiwan. Death penalty abolished November 2015 by Constitution. [151] The last person to suffer the death penalty in Brazil was executed in 1876, during the Imperial era. The most recent countries to abolish capital punishment in Asia are Timor-Leste (2002), Bhutan (2004), Philippines (2006), Kyrgyzstan (2007), Uzbekistan (2008), Mongolia (2017), and Kazakhstan (2021). This, however, is far more than half the number of murders amongst the five countries with the penalty still in force. Hanging. 36 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1990s, with 9 in 1990 alone, 23 in the 2000s, 11 in the 2010s, and 2 so far in the 2020s. The last execution on Russian territory was in Chechnya in 1999. In 2016, there were approximately 30 new death sentences—down from a record high of 315 in 1996. [243][244] While Maynmar courts do hand down death sentences pro forma in particularly egregious cases, most recently in the 2018 case of Myo Zaw Oo who was convicted of the rape and murder of a government worker,[245] the sentences in practice are not carried out and are in effect life sentences. As such it is in principle subject to the laws, enforcement, and judicial system of Myanmar. At least 20 countries performed executions in 2019:[26][27][28]. Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. The last time another country in the region carried out executions was in 2005. The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country. 24 (44%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years. The table below lists in chronological order the 106 independent states, that are either UN members or have UN observer status, that have completely abolished the death penalty. CCPR/C/79/Add.116 (1999)", "Cameroun: Paul Biya signe un décret conduisant à la libération de Michel Thierry Atangana", "89 Boko Haram militants sentenced to death in Cameroon", "Human Rights Committee Considers The Situation In The Central African Republic", "The Death Penalty in Central African Republic", "Chad executes 10 Boko Haram members by firing squad", http://north-africa.com/2020/04/sahel-chad-abolishes-death-penalty-for-terrorism/, "Chad reintroduces death penalty for acts of terror - BBC News", "Chad parliament abolishes death penalty for acts of terror", "The death penalty: List of abolitionist and retentionist countries (October 1996)", "Congo's Presidential Election Strengthens the Controversial New Constitution that Abolished Capital Punishment", "The Death Penalty in Democratic Republic of the Congo", "Eq Guinea executes four coup convicts: Amnesty", "Swaziland Moves Toward Execution By Lethal Injection; Hangman Unavailable", "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Gabon, U.N. Doc. Showing 1 to 51 of 51 entries At least 607 executions were carried out worldwide in 2014, a decrease of almost 22% compared to the figures recorded for 2013. Kazakhstan also announced measures to start the process of joining the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which commits states to abolishing the death penalty. May be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war. In 1997 Hong Kong was returned to Chinese rule as a special administrative region of China. Countries whose laws provide for the death penalty only for exceptional crimes such as crimes under military law or crimes committed in exceptional circumstances BRAZIL GUATEMALA Slovenia and Croatia abolished the death penalty while they were still republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Executions in Africa in 2019: Botswana (1), Egypt (29+), Somalia (13+), South Sudan (7+)[30][31] Significant Litigation. [104] Each of the 36 states has its own laws. 4) … Death penalty for murder, robbery resulting in death or permanent disability of the victim, armed robbery, terrorism, some economic crimes, espionage, treason, certain military offences. 1 (3%) maintain the death sentence in both law and practice. The fourteen countries that have legalized and retained the right to execute criminals for their crimes include: Bangladesh; China; Egypt; Ethiopia; India; Indonesia; Iran; Japan; Nigeria; Saudi Arabia 2. Interactive map: The death penalty around the world The interactive map is in French. Kazakhstan has abolished the death penalty, making permanent a nearly 20-year freeze on capital punishment in the Central Asian country, according to a notice on the presidential website. Abolishing the Death Penalty: As of July, 2018, according to Amnesty International, the capital punishment has been retained by the 56 countries of the 198 United Nations states. Hanging is used. Hanging (in the past, for civil offences), firing squad (military offences). Prohibited by the. Nearly all countries in this region have abolished the death penalty as a form of punishment, … [19] [147][148][149][150] The countries where these still occur are North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Somalia according to research carried out by Amnesty International in 2012. Death penalty for murder; blasphemy; homosexuality; adultery; treason; rape; robbery; incest; assisting the suicide of a person legally unable to consent; perjury in a capital case causing wrongful execution; terrorism; terrorist acts; some military offences; sodomy;[103] kidnapping and practice of indigenous beliefs in states applying Shariah law. The new Code came into effect 6 months later, on 26 February 2009.[140][141]. More than two-thirds are abolitionist in law or practice. This century the following European countries have abolished capital punishment: Ukraine (2000), Malta (2000), Cyprus (2002), Turkey (2004), Greece (2004), Moldova (2005), Albania (2007), Latvia (2012), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2019). Death penalty for treason; insurgency, banditry, sabotage or terrorism resulting in death; perjury in a capital case leading to wrongful execution; murder; attempted murder causing injury by a person sentenced to life for a previous murder; brigandage with murder; and drug dealing under aggravated circumstances. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The use of capital punishment is usually divided into the four categories set out below. Abolition is also a pre-condition for entry into the European Union. Executions in the Americas in 2019: United States (22).[128]. Countries That Still Have The Death Penalty. In Israel and Chile, it is restricted to crimes committed in wartime. Number of African countries abolished death penalty in past decade. Year after year, we can observe a downward trend in the number of death sentences and executions worldwide. DS: Today, over 100 countries have legally abolished the death penalty for all crimes. • 36 countries have abolished the death penalty in practice; • 8 countries have abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes. Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon. In Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Peru, capital punishment is only legal in special circumstances, such as war crimes. Death penalty for murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved. The death penalty in China", India Executues Four Men Convicted of Bus Gang Rape and Murder, "Indonesian and three Nigerians executed for drug crimes", "Execution of women in tandem, Iran Hangs Two Women", "Iran executions see 'unprecedented spike' - Amnesty", "Iran - Facts on Trafficking and Prostitution", https://twitter.com/RudawEnglish/status/1328331004688392192, "Human rights groups condemn Iraq's death penalty decision", "Should those who assist suicide bombers be given the death penalty? 1907 and by the `` law No, however, prisoners held for political crimes, for... ( 14 % ) permit its use for ordinary crimes, while others have abolished the death penalty suspended UN... From such amnesties declined dramatically around the world the interactive map is in.... System of Myanmar in 2010, than any other African state also very high which countries have abolished the death penalty and., Italy ) only the later abolition date is included so in 40 years, we observe... 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