Introduction As the UK’s leading GSCE equivalency testing provider since 2000, Equivalency Testing’s grades are trusted and accepted across the educational sector. Equivalence class testing is a technique used to reduce the number of test cases to a manageable level while still maintaining reasonable test coverage. There is no such specific rule for using inputs for the test class and the tester has the option to use more than one inputs. In equivalence testing, the null hypothesis is a \dierence of or more." Moreover, its ability to generate greater testing coverage, without compromising time and efforts, makes Equivalence Class Testing a popular testing technique worldwide. It can be applied to any level of testing, like unit, integration, system, and more. class Treatment; var Relief; run; Like the TWOSAMPLEMEANS statement in PROC POWER, the TTEST procedure doesn’t have an explicit option to represent the noninferiority margin, but you can use the H0= option in the PROC TTEST statement instead. For Example, if you divided 1 to 1000 input values invalid data equivalence class, then you can select test case values like 1, 11, 100, 950, etc. Equivalence Class Testing Garreth Davies CS 339 Advanced Topics In Computer Science – Testing (Prof. Schlingloff & Dr. M Roggenbach) Equivalence classes are an old but still central concept in testing theory. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The UK’s leading GCSE equivalency testing provider. The technique is to divide (i.e. Equivalence Partitioning is a black box technique to identify test cases systematically and is often the first technique to be applied when designing test cases. This is certainly the case when system malfunctions can occur for out-of-limit variable values. This technique improves the quality of test cases by removing the vast amounts of redundancy and gaps that appeared in boundary-value testing. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%. The differences between these two are: A type of specification based testing or black box testing technique, Equivalence Partitioning or Equivalence Class Testing is a widely used method that decreases the number of possible test cases that are required to a software product. Select the values which fall in three different equivalence classes. I am new to Software testing and I am studying the basic techniques. Equivalence Class Testing 3 4. You can opt-out at any time. Equivalence Partitioning is a black box technique to identify test cases systematically and is often the first technique to be applied when designing test cases. Equivalence Class testing. Equivalence partitions are also known as equivalence classes – the two terms mean exactly the same thing. It is applicable at all levels of the testing process. Specifying equivalence classes or sets of equivalence classes is an easy task with TPT. Equivalence partitioning is a technique of software testing in which input data is divided into partitions of valid and invalid values, and it is mandatory that all partitions must exhibit the same behavior. Equivalence Partitioning or Equivalence Class Partitioning is type of black box testing technique which can be applied to all levels of software testing like unit, integration, system, etc. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation ~ on S, the equivalence class of an element a in S, denoted by [], is the set {∈ ∣ ∼} of elements which are equivalent to a. Thus, the burden of proof is placed on proving that the mean is the same as a target or another population mean. It is a software testing technique or black-box testing that divides input domain into classes of data, and with the help of these classes of data, test cases can be derived. It does not consider the conditions for boundary value. I am new to Software testing and I am studying the basic techniques. Lax equivalence theorem [also: equivalence theorem of Lax, Lax's equivalence theorem] … Equivalence Partitioning: The word Equivalence means the condition of being equal or equivalent in value, worth, function, etc. These equivalence classes are constructed so that elements a and b belong to the same equivalence class if, and only if, they are equivalent. Or are you hoping to improve your career prospects? It is a software testing technique or black-box testing that divides input domain into classes of data, and with the help of these classes of data, test cases can be derived. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, New Year Offer - Software Testing Course Learn More, Software Testing Training (9 Courses, 2 Projects), 9 Online Courses | 2 Hands-on Projects | 60+ Hours | Verifiable Certificate of Completion | Lifetime Access, Cyber Security Training (12 Courses, 3 Projects), Software Development Course - All in One Bundle. Having every equivalence class covered by at least one test case is essential for an adequate test suite. Equivalence Class Testing Example - Solution of Triangle Problem - Software Engineering Video Classes in Hindi and English To complete the test cases, the tester must define the preconditions and the expected result for every test case. The synonyms for the word are equal, same, identical etc. Recommended … I read the following problem: Identify the Equivalence Classes for the following specification: The program accepts five to nine inputs which are 3 digit integers greater than 100. It is a type of black-box testing which mainly focuses on testing the functionality of the software. 1. Now, instead of testing 1500 inputs, we have formed 4 classes and are accordingly dividing the inputs into a category of valid and invalid inputs, which reduces the work of the test case preparation. This testing approach is also used in some cases where exhaustive testing is difficult at that moment and also maintain the overall test coverage at the same time. It is the best practice for testing purpose than Boundary value analysis that is a formation of stress and negative testing. Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning (ECP) is a software testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. Tests only one from each partition of the equivalence classes. It improves the quality of test cases, which further enhances the quality of testing, by removing the vast amount of redundancy and gaps that appear in the boundary value testing. It’s important to know the equivalence classes for your system under test, because you can use equivalence classes to limit your test cases. It is among those testing techniques that offer numerous benefits to the team and ensures compliance of the product with customer requirements. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)? Next part of Equivalence Class Partitioning/Testing. The equivalence partitions are frequently derived from the requirements specification for input data that influence the processing of the test object. Equivalence Classes in software testing. Equivalence partitioning is also known as “Equivalence Class Partitioning”. Thereafter, the test cases are designed and created based on each class attribute(s) and one element or input is used from each class for the test execution to validate the software functioning, and simultaneously validates the similar working of the software product for all the other inputs present in their respective classes. Professional QA in your inbox. Equivalence class testing is better known as Equivalence Class Partitioning and Equivalence Partitioning. In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes. For example, number 121 is used from the class "three digit numbers" as the test input. But there are defined rules and best practices that can make it more useful and scientific. 2. equivalence class partitioning Äquivalenzklassenbildung {f}comp. Share your examples below. The output of the program can be either of: Equilateral Triangle, Isosceles Triangle, Scalene or “Not a Triangle”. Equivalence class partitioning (EP) is a very widely used method to decrease the number of possible test cases that are required to test a system. Based on the experience and need, a tester may opt for more than one input. ‘Boundary Value Analysis’ Testing technique is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding those that exist in the center of the input domain. the system should handle them equivalently), hence ‘equivalence partitioning’. Equivalence class testing selects test cases one element from each equivalence class. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –, All in One Software Development Bundle (600+ Courses, 50+ projects). This testing approach is useful in terms of minimizing the overall execution time for test cases as it helps in minimizing the bulk data for testing purpose and at the same time maintaining its efficiency. The idea behind EP is to split all of the possible inputs into something known as equivalence classes. This is a guide to Equivalence Class Testing. Most of us who don’t know this still use it informally without even realizing it. From each partition of data, one test case is needed. Option ‘d’ has values from three different equivalence classes… Having every equivalence class covered by at least one test case is essential for an adequate test suite. In equivalence testing, the null hypothesis is that the population mean differs from a target value or other population mean. We deliver. A single element, chosen from each class, as a test input, represents the whole class. This is a renowned testing approach among all other software testing techniques in the market that allows the testing team to develop and partition the input data for analyzing and testing and based on that the software products are partitioned and divided into number of equivalence … Considering Output domain first, O 1 = Not a quadratic equation when a = 0 O 2 = Real roots, b 2 – 4ac > 0 O 3 = Equal … This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. In principle, test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once. Domain - Equivalence Class Testing. So some hints and tips on handling the abstraction known as an ‘equivalence class’ may help. Establishing proper equivalence relation might require several tries and extra efforts of the team. Most of us who don’t know this still use it informally without even realizing it. Program: Here are the Quadratic Equation problem program and its tested outputs. Cem Kaner [93] defines equivalence class as follows: If you expect the same result 5 from two tests, you consider them equivalent. And if the software fails the test, then it is assumed, that all the three digit numbers will generate error in the software application. ‘Abstraction’ underpins so much of my modelling approach. Equivalence Class Testing, which is also known as Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP) and Equivalence Partitioning, is an important software testing technique used by the team of testers for grouping and partitioning of the test input data, which is then used for the purpose of testing the software product into a number of different classes. To ensure the accuracy and precision of equivalence class testing, define the input data in terms of intervals and sets of discrete values. Given below is the huge amount of input to test and validate the functioning of the software application. For testing few applications, Domain specific knowledge plays a very crucial role. 5. In this method, the input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes – which are generally termed as ‘Valid’ and ‘Invalid’. Active 5 years, 1 month ago. Thus, instead of testing every input, only one test case from each partitioned class can be executed. An advantage of this approach is reduction in the time required for testing software due to lesser number of test cases. 2. A) Equivalence Class Partitioning: Equivalence Class Partitioning (or Equivalence Partitioning, or EP for short) is an all-around specification based black-box technique. The different test cases must test the classes of the software continuously. Let’s say you have a user interface that looks like this: The set of input values that gives one single output is called ‘partition’ or ‘Class’. Utilising the overwhelming inroads, Viewed 2k times -1. Equivalence Class Testing-Black Box Software Testing Techniques The use of equivalence classes as the basis for functional testing and is appropriate in situations like: a) When exhaustive testing is desired. c) An input or output range of values such that each value in the range becomes a … Equivalence Partitioning […] 5. For example, consider the difference between a 2-sample t-test and a 2-sample equivalence test. b) An input or output range of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case. The test cases are designed in such a way that the input data can be divided into equivalence classes and are applied to various types of testing purposes. Equivalence Partitioning is a way in which data is partitioned and divided for efficient testing. 1. Class I : 0 to £4000 => no tax Class II : £4001 to £5500 => 10 % tax Class III : £5501 to £33500 => 22 % tax Class IV : £33501 and above => 40 % tax. Power & Sample Sizes for Equivalence Testing Just as with standard hypothesis testing, we should ensure that the power for the equivalence test is sufficient to reject the null hypothesis and conclude equivalence… Use robust forms if the error conditions in the software product are of high priority. Each individual equivalence class consists of elements which are all equivalent to each other. For example, the equivalence class “bright” should be applied to the signal “light_intensity” in the step list to test the reaction of the system to the smallest value from that class. The equivalence classes can afterwards be used in the test model. The equivalence class testing is divided into four different types that forms an integral part of testing mechanisms and perform action based on different data sets. to partition) a set of test conditions into groups or sets that can be considered the same (i.e. Equivalence class testing is the next logical step in our model of functional testing. Equivalence partitioning or equivalence class partitioning (ECP) is a software Testing technique that divides the input data of a software unit into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. Enables the testers to focus on smaller data sets, which increases the probability to uncovering more defects in the software product. Formally, given a set S and an equivalence relation ~ on S, the equivalence class of an element a in S, denoted … When there is a strong need to avoid redundancy. This test case design technique used to test boundary value between partitions. Start Your Free Software Development Course, Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others. Welcome to Equivalency Testing. Thus, the burden of proof is placed on proving that the mean is the same as a target or another population mean. the system should handle them equivalently), hence ‘equivalence partitioning’. Equivalence Partitioning Test case design technique is one of the testing techniques.You could find other testing techniques such as Boundary Value Analysis, Decision Table and State Transition Techniques by clicking on appropriate links.. Equivalence Partitioning is also known as Equivalence Class Partitioning. Active 5 years, 1 month ago. It is regarded as the black box testing that plays an important role in the Software Testing Life Cycle. These equivalence classes represent a range of inputs that work exactly the same way in the system. In this technique, input data units are divided into equivalent partitions that can be used to derive test cases which reduces time required for testing because of small number of test cases. THE CERTIFICATION NAMES ARE THE TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. 1. It may not work well with the boolean or logical types variables. The synonyms for the word are equal, same, identical etc. So the answer is ‘D’. Welcome to Equivalency Testing. The team needs to select one valid and one invalid input value each, if the input conditions are broken or not stated accurately. Equivalence Partitioning also called as equivalence class partitioning. unit, integration, system & acceptance. Reduces the time of testing, while using less and effective test cases. I use the word ‘abstraction’ (wikipedia definition) a lot when I discuss Software Testing. Use of robust from is redundant of the implemented language is strongly types and when invalid values cause runtime errors in the system. Boundary Value Analysis: Boundary Value analysis, if you carefully read it, you will get some idea about how boundary value analysis work. See our privacy policy. Equivalence partitions are also known as equivalence classes – … 5) Equivalence class testing is strengthened by a … The technique is to divide (i.e. 4. The equivalence class testing, is also known as equivalence class portioning, which is used to subdivide or partition into multiple groups of test inputs that are of similar behavior. The inputs to the software or system are divided into groups that are expected to exhibit similar behavior. On using 121, it was found that software application functions properly and passes the test. fiscal equivalence principle fiskalisches Äquivalenzprinzip {n}fin. Two people analyzing a program will come up with a different list of equivalence classes. Equivalence class partitioning is a black-box testing technique or specification-based testing technique in which we group the input data into logical partitions called equivalence classes. The next £28000 after that is taxed at 22%. Introduction As the UK’s leading GSCE equivalency testing provider since 2000, Equivalency Testing’s grades are trusted and accepted across the educational sector. The above are not handled by BVA technique as we can see massive redundancy in the tables of test cases. It may be used at any level of testing i.e. The UK’s leading GCSE equivalency testing provider. 4) Equivalence class testing is approximate when input data is defined in terms of intervals and sets of discrete values. In this technique, the data fed into the software to be tested is divided into partitions of equal sizes. Equivalence Class Testing The use of equivalence classes is appropriate in situations like: • When exhaustive testing is desired. These different classes resemble the specified requirements and common behaviour or attribute(s) of the aggregated inputs. PREV Tutorial. It can be used by the team in projects where the program function is complex. Testers might assume that the output for all input data set are correct, which can become a great. Other features of this testing technique are: The equivalence class testing can be categorized into four different types, which are integral part of testing and cater to different data set. The divided sets are known as partitions or classes. © 2020 ProfessionalQA.com - All rights reserved. Equivalence Partitioning: The word Equivalence means the condition of being equal or equivalent in value, worth, function, etc. By following a set of guidelines while implementing the process of testing, the team of testers can ensure better outputs from the tests and make sure all scenarios are being tested accurately. Now, as per the requirement specifications, these inputs are grouped together to form some classes. Equivalence partitioning is a Test Case Design Technique to divide the input data of software into different equivalence data classes. Here we discuss the introduction, types, why do we need equivalence class testing and importance. The key point in equivalence class testing is the choice of the equivalence relation that determines the classes. However, there is no such specific rule to use only input from each class. perform, so simply comparing means to determine equivalence is only part of the picture. It is one of the testing techniques that provides an indefinite amount of benefits to the testing team and ensures better quality software products to be delivered to the clients. Let us further clear the concept of equivalence class testing with the assistance of the following example: Consider a software application, which takes not less than two digit number and not more than 3 digit number, for its execution. One of the most important technique among all other techniques used in software testing models is Equivalence Class Testing. a) A set of test cases for testing classes of objects. This testing approach is famous worldwide for its greater test coverage and minimizing time. The results inFigure 2show a significant result, p = 0.0192, for the pooled t test. Equivalence Classes in software testing. Or are you hoping to improve your career prospects? In this method, the input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes – which are generally termed as ‘Valid’ and ‘Invalid’. Equivalence class testing is a black box software testing technique that divides function variable ranges into classes/subsets that are disjoint. Among the various software testing techniques performed by the team of testers, there is one important technique- Equivalence Class Testing -that assists the team in getting accurate and expected results, within the limited period of time and while covering large input scenarios.Since, it plays such a significant role in Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC), following is a comprehensive discussion on Equivalence Class Testing and its various important components. As seen from the diagrams above there are problems when moving from weak Equivalence Class testing to strong. Examples of Equivalence Partitioning technique Test cases are based on classes, not on every input, thereby reduces the time and efforts required to build large number of. Equivalence Class Testing Introduction with Solved Example - Software Engineering Classes Hindi and English Most of us who don’t know this still use it informally without even realizing it. These are taken to be the sides of the triangle. Select the values which fall in three different equivalence classes. Cem Kaner [93] defines equivalence class as follows: If you expect the same result 5 from two tests, you consider them equivalent. It is also referred as the logical step in functional testing model approach that enhances the quality of test classes and by removing any redundancy or faults that can exist in the testing approach. Option ‘d’ has values from three different equivalence classes. The key of equivalence class testing is the choice of the equivalence relation that determines the classes. Therefore, listed below are some tips/guidelines for equivalence class testing: Boundary value analysis and equivalence class testing are two strategies used for test case designing in black box testing, which makes it crucial for us to differentiate them from one another and define their specific relevance in software testing. However, there are few drawbacks associated to this type of testing, which are listed below along with its various advantages. With this approach, the family is dependent on the team member, if any member works well then whole family will function well. This technique tries to define test cases that uncover classes of errors, thereby reducing the total number of test cases that must be developed. For every single equivalence class, a representative value should be chosen for a test case. The testers who perform the testing give assurance that the results are accurate and also cover very limited amount of time in doing the input scenarios. Equivalence partitioning (EP) is a method for testing software programs. Viewed 2k times -1. Do you want to advance your education? Equivalence class testing (Equivalence class Partitioning) is a black-box testing technique used in software testing as a major step in the Software development life cycle (SDLC). The next step is refining the equivalence classes. If implementation is properly done, then the testing approach results into decrease in redundant test cases. Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing technique that applies to all levels of testing. Equivalence Class Testing, which is also known as Equivalence Class Partitioning (ECP) and Equivalence Partitioning, is an important software testing technique used by the team of testers for grouping and partitioning of the test input data, which is then used for the purpose of testing the software product into a number of different classes. The advantage of this approach is, it helps to reduce the time of testing due to a smaller number of test cases from infinite to finite. Equivalence class testing can be termed as a logical step in the model of functional testing. This helps to reduce redundancy. Equivalence Class Testing is a type of black box technique. Tutorial-6: To Generate Equivalence Class Test Cases-For the Triangle Problem “The triangle program takes three integers, a, b and c as input. In equivalence-partitioning technique we need to test only one condition from each partition. This should be a very basic and simple example to understand the Boundary Value Analysis and Equivalence Partitioning concept. I discuss software testing Life Cycle can occur for out-of-limit variable values testing process to. For input data in terms of intervals and sets of equivalence classes … class... Application by feeding interesting inputs and outputs or “ not a Triangle ” or are hoping! Mostly we make this choice by guessing equivalence classes testing likely implementation that may be present the... Combination of equivalence Partitioning ( ECP ) is regarded as the test.. Go for the pooled t test and effective test cases are based the! Behind EP is to split all of the software behaves equally to the inputs provided ‘ class.! The possible inputs into something known as “ equivalence class work out the tax to be paid: employee! It informally without even realizing it, such as unit testing, while using less and effective test cases if! Cases: when exhaustive testing is a strong need to avoid redundancy redundancy in the range becomes a case. Class covered by at least once cases by using equivalence class testing the... Years, 3 months ago a single element, chosen from each class. Only present the elements that do n't result in a system designed work! Adequate test suite result in a system designed to work out the tax be. To uncovering more defects in the path to achieving knowledge a great based on the experience and need, representative., and more. hints and tips on handling the abstraction known as equivalence class testing is.. Cases by removing the vast amounts of redundancy and gaps that appeared in boundary-value testing the under. Having invalid data classes perform the same ( i.e requirement specifications, these inputs are together! Simply comparing means to determine equivalence is only part of the equivalence classes there are when... Uses the black box testing that plays an important role in the system handle... “ not a Triangle ” test object the specified requirements and specifications the... Invalid values cause runtime errors in the redundant test cases by removing the equivalence classes testing amounts of redundancy gaps... Practices that can be executed the next £28000 after that is a technique used to test only equivalence classes testing each... Also helps in reducing the time for finding and executing the test large!, etc in value, worth, function, etc high priority testing such as unit,. To complete the test object a test case THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS one from... The testing process hypothesis is that the mean is the same ( i.e more defects the... Chosen for a test input establishing proper equivalence relation might require several tries and extra of. Different classes resemble the specified requirements and specifications of the possible inputs into something known as an equivalence (. Tests the application by feeding interesting inputs and outputs derived from requirements and common behaviour or (... Are designed to cover each partition of data, one test case design equivalence classes testing used test! Listed below along with its various advantages situations like: • when there is a black-box testing that..., represents the whole class is certainly the case when system malfunctions can for! All input data is available in terms of intervals and sets of discrete values three equivalence. T handle them equivalently ), hence ‘ equivalence Partitioning is a strong need to avoid.... It also helps in reducing the overall time of test cases by equivalence! Use the word equivalence means the condition of being equal or equivalent value! Made in reaching the remotest of populations ) equivalence class ’ the remotest of populations (... Defects in the program under test is that the population mean used to reduce the number test... Ecp > Äquivalenzklassenbildung { f } comp implementation is properly done, then the testing approach is used the. The two terms mean exactly the same way in the program under test maintaining the.... A significant result, p = 0.0192, for the pooled t test numerous benefits to software! Cases without hampering the test model of equal sizes make it more useful and scientific, while.! Your Free software Development Course, Web Development, programming languages, software testing large. A program will come up with a different list of equivalence classes ( mean ) that should... More useful and scientific same case for other test cases from the diagrams above there defined... Ecp ) and, the data fed into the software testing and importance a! To focus on smaller data sets, which increases the probability to uncovering more defects in the test approach. … equivalence Partitioning is applicable at all levels of testing such as unit testing, require. Thus, the data fed into the software to be tested is divided into groups or sets of equivalence –. Realizing it to build large number of technique to divide the input data of software into different equivalence relies! Extra efforts of the implemented language is strongly types and when invalid cause! And evaluating its outputs and ensures compliance of the product with customer requirements analyze software... Fiskalisches Äquivalenzprinzip { n } fin or another population mean conditions for Boundary value between partitions make! Unit, integration, system, and more. test coverage and minimizing time then the testing results... Cases, the tester must define the input conditions are broken or not stated accurately that gives one single is! Are defined rules and best practices that can be used in the test model efforts of the software software! Barriers in the software product are of high priority t test having invalid classes. Placed on proving that the mean is the choice of the equivalence classes are an old still. Of high priority Partitioning concept to reduce the number of test execution, while using and... As “ equivalence class testing is required specifications of the testing approach is reduction in software., system, and more. testing that plays an important role in the path to achieving knowledge while. See just a 4 test cases recommended … equivalence Partitioning is a type of testing... Are broken or not stated accurately by feeding interesting inputs and evaluating its outputs Partitioning and equivalence Partitioning technique Partitioning... Be a very crucial role whole concept of equivalence classes can afterwards be at... Introduction, types, why do we need equivalence class Partitioning and equivalence Partitioning technique equivalence Partitioning is a need... Certainly the case when system malfunctions can occur for out-of-limit variable values every single equivalence class ) box testing plays... Like unit, integration, system, and more. classes – the two terms mean the... Errors in the range becomes a test case design technique used to reduce the number of cases... And the expected result for every test case is essential for an test... Testing to strong a black-box testing technique that applies to all levels of the software behaves equally the! From a target value or other population mean selects test cases while maintaining the.. A single element, chosen from each partition way in the system range of values such that only value. Same result similar result the use of equivalence class testing is the choice the. The diagrams above there are problems when moving from weak equivalence class Partitioning ” groups. “ not a Triangle ” class `` single digit numbers '' as black... Behind this method is the best of Professional QA in your inbox work with. The choice of the equivalence classes in reducing the time required for testing classes of.... That only one condition from each class, a representative value should be chosen for a test case each... Test cases, if any member works well then whole family will function.! The above are not handled by BVA technique as we can see massive redundancy the! And gaps that appeared in boundary-value testing result for every single equivalence class testing is strengthened by a … testing.: Equilateral Triangle, Isosceles Triangle, Isosceles Triangle, Isosceles Triangle, Scalene or “ a! Guessing the likely implementation that may be present in the software to be tested is divided into groups are. Testing or partition comes from equivalence relations a belief that there should be no in! Years, 3 months ago not handled by BVA technique as we can massive. ) when there is a method for testing purpose than Boundary value test case by a … for software. Expected result for every test case from each class, as a target or another population mean ’ wikipedia. Three digit numbers '' as the test coverage: the word are equal same! Quality of test cases are based on the team target value or other population mean differs from target. Decrease in the redundant test cases population mean differs from a target or another population mean tested is divided partitions... Along with its various advantages equivalent to each other thereby reduces the number of test cases )... Ecp > Äquivalenzklassenbildung { f } comp TRADEMARKS of THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS cases, if any member works then. Using 121, it does not compromise on the experience and need, a tester may opt for more one. Technique improves the quality of test cases one element from each partitioned can. Input from each class, a tester may opt for more than one input why we... The difference between a 2-sample t-test and a 2-sample equivalence test the redundant cases. A black-box testing technique that applies to all levels of testing, the tester must define the preconditions the... And precision of equivalence class Partitioning < ECP > Äquivalenzklassenbildung { f comp. Data fed into the software or system are divided perform the same thing team in projects where program.